On the russian side, the SA-15 Tor short-range surface-to-air missile system (SAM) is playing a critical and largely effective role.
This is in contrast with other short-range systems, such as SA-22 Pantsir, which are operated by russian Aerospace Forces and typically protects command nodes, longer range SAMs, and air bases.
Effectively acting as the front line of russia’s elaborate air defense network in Ukraine, the SA-15 is currently particularly utilized to counter Ukrainian uncrewed aerial vehicle operations.
One of the key limitations of the system in the current war is likely the endurance of its crew.
With an established allocation of only three personnel to each system, maintaining a high state of alert for extended periods is highly likely proving an extreme test of endurance.
The Tor air defense system incorporates a surveillance antenna, tracking radar, and 9M330/9M331 missiles on a tracked chassis.